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138.  Introduction to SQL

Rev. 2.1

 

This course is an introduction to the SQL database language. After this course the student will be able to use SQL to define, manipulate and control access to their data. The course thoroughly covers SQL syntax and facilities.

 

The course begins with a general introduction to databases, including the principles of relational databases. Data retrieval is discussed in depth, covering all of the pertinent features of SQL, including joins. Data Manipulation Language is covered, including inserting, updating and deleting data. Transaction control and locking is discussed. Data Definition Language is covered, including creating, altering and dropping tables, and the use of integrity constraints. Views and indexes are covered. The course includes detailed coverage of Data Control Language. The course concludes with an introduction to the principles of relational database design.

 

The material is generic to SQL. An appendix provides a survival guide to working with Microsoft SQL Server. The student will receive a Student Guide containing complete course notes with a lab manual containing very complete write-ups of laboratory exercises and solutions. A file provides a setup script for the class database. All courseware software is available for download.

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

 

·         Introduction to Databases - their purposes and terminology

·         Gain an in-depth understanding of SQL - concepts, syntax, uses

·         Use SQL hands-on to access a database

 

Course Duration:  3 days.

 

Prerequisites:  General familiarity with computers and data processing.

 

1.      Introduction to Databases

Database

Files or Tables

Database - Further Properties

Metadata

 

2.      Relational Databases

Relational Database

Example of a Relation

Relational Operations

 

3.      Introduction To SQL

History of SQL

Data Definition Language

Tables

Schemas

Views

Data Manipulation Language

Find Data

Insert, Update and Delete Data

Data Control Language

Grant and Revoke

Commit and Rollback

Non-Procedural Language

SQL Datatypes

 

4.      Table Creation

Create Table

Column Constraints

NULL and NOT NULL

Keys

Default Values

References and Check Clauses

Additional Constraints

Foreign Keys

Populating A Table

Insert Statement

Inserting Into a Table through a Query Specification

 

5.      Finding Data In Tables – Part I

Select Statement

Where Clause

Predicates

Boolean combinations

SQL “Truth” Tables

Boolean Precedence

Two Value Rules Retained

Between Predicate

In Predicate

Outer Reference

Exists Predicate

Quantified Predicate

 

6.      Finding Data in Tables - Part II

Joins

Cross Product Joins

Equ-Join

Outer-Joins

Left Outer Join

Union, Intersection, and Difference

All Keyword

Order By

Multiple Column Order Bys

NULL and ORDER BY

 

7.      Finding and Updating Data in Tables

Aggregate Functions

Table for Aggregates

Aggregate functions, examples

Aggregate Function Rules

Group By

Having Cause

Views

Normalized Tables and Views

Combined View

Views and Security

Drop View

Update

Assignments

Delete

Updateble Views

 

8.      More Data Definition Language

Drop Table

Alter

Create Index

Index Speedup

 

9.      Data Control Language

Data Control Language

Grant

Reference Privileges

Revoke

Abandoned Privileges

Transaction

Commit and Rollback

Transactions and Microsoft (all material following in chapter is specific to Microsoft)

SQL Server Locks

Locking Granularity

Shared, Exclusive and Update Lock

Intent, Extent and Demand Locks

Demand locks

sp_lock

Deadlock

ISQLW and Transactions

ISQLW and set statements

Read Commited

Read Uncommited

Repeatable Read

HOLDLOCK

Other Table Qualifiers

 

10. Introduction to Relational Database Design

One-To-One Relationships

One-To-Many

Many-To-Many

Normal Forms

First Normal Form

Second Normal Form

Third Normal Form

 

Appendix A. Lab Manual

 

Appendix B. SQL Server Survival Guide

 

SQL Server

Enterprise Manager

Query Analyzer

 

Appendix C. Reading List

 

System Requirements

 

The course is designed to be delivered in any environment supporting a SQL compliant DBMS with a query facility. SQL Server is recommended as the DBMS.